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Semen Analysis

Evaluation of male fertility is done due by checking the semen in the lab.
In our andrology lab the embryologist does the semen analysis. It is done to check the no of sperms, the motility of sperms, presence of abnormal sperms and several other parameters.

sperm motility

Structure of a Normal Sperm

Semen Abnormalities  
A Normozoospermia Normal ejaculate
B Oligozoospermia Sperm concentration Less than 20 million/mL
C Asthenozoospermia movement abnormalities
D Teratozoospermia Less than 30% sperm with normal morphology
E Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia Disturbance of all three variables
F Azoospermia No sperm ejaculate
G Aspermia No ejaculate

Common cause of abnormalities:

Artefact :(incorrect collection/examination methodology)

Reddish color: Hemospermia- trauma, inflamation or tumor of the genital tract

Highly viscous semen: Cause is not known (impaired motility)

Liquefation Failure: (impaired motility)-impaired prostate function

Increased Semen volume:Hyperspermia-more than10ml may cause dilutional oligozoospermia


Absence sperms in the ejaculate

  1. Retrogade ejaculation-in bladder
  2.  An ejaculation- problem with ejaculation
  3. Bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction

Abnormal sperms Microscopic view
normal sperm motilitysperm motility testimprove sperm motility

Structure of Abnormal Sperm

sperm motility

Sperm concentration:

Oligozoospermia (Reduced Count):
If less than 20 million / ml-oligozoospermia (repeat semen analysis after 3 months: 74 days for process of spermatogenesis and 12 / 20 days for travel)

Azoospermia( Absence of Sperm):
No spermatozoa in the fresh or centrifuged resuspended semen sample

Polyzoospermia (Increased sperm):
If more than 350 million/ml

Sperm motility (Reduced movement):
If less than 50% progressively motile  asthenozoospermia (EM-sperm tail defect).

Dead sperms

Teratozoospermia(Abnormal Sperm):
Presence of more than 70% abnormal sperm morphology in the sample.


Authored by Dr. Anitha Mani - Infertility Specialist & Laparoscopy Surgeon

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